1. Pan, L. & Woelderen, S. (2017). Platforms: bigger, faster, stronger. ING. Retrieved from­-foundations-­report­-20170706.pdf

2. Iansiti, M. & Lakhani, K. R. (2017). Managing our hub economy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from­our­-hub­-economy

3. Morozov, E. (2018, January 28). Will tech giants move on from the Internet, now we’ve all been harvested? The Guardian. Retrieved from­-artificial­-intelligence-­data-­technology­-online

4. For Amazon, the biggest source of profit is not online retail, but the digital intelligence solutions of its business subsidiary Amazon Web Services that will eventually enable the company to vertically integrate every aspect of consumption, across many sectors of the economy.

5. Chanchani, M. (2018). Alibaba, Tencent, Softbank corner Amazon and Uber to become the biggest allies of India’s digital entrepreneurs. The Economic Times. Retrieved from

6. Massoudi, A., Inagaki, K., and Lewis, L. (2018). Soft Bank: Inside the Wild West $ 100 bn Fund shaking up the tech world. Financial Times. Retrieved from

7. Singh, P.J. (2017). Developing countries in the emerging global digital order. Retrieved from

8. IT for Change. (2017). Draft input text for UN treaty on TNCs and human rights. Retrieved from

9. For example, consider China’s MediaBrain project – a collaboration between AliBaba and China’s state news agency to create an all-seeing digital eye that can potentially access data collected from countless surveillance cameras, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, dashboard-mounted car cameras, air pollution monitoring stations and personal wearable devices to find leads, gather news, edit, distribute and finally, feedback analysis.

10. Hildyard, N. (2018). Why now? Structural drivers behind PPPs and mega corridor projects. Presentation at the meeting ¨Challenging the ‘Billions to Trillions’ Model of Financing Development¨, organized by the Center of Concern, SID, Eurodad and the Heinrich Böll Foundation, July, 2018.

11. Sharma, P. (n.d.). Top 3 land tenure systems during the British rule in India. Retrieved from

12. Gurumurthy, A. (forthcoming). Digital globality, in digital economies at global margins. Edited by Mark Graham, MIT Press.

13. Roberts, W. (2017, June 19). Amazon’s move on whole foods is primal, more than “disruptive”. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

14. ETC Group, (2018). The Monsanto–Bayer tie-up is just one of seven – Mega-mergers and big data domination threaten seeds, food security. (2016, September 15). Retrieved from

15. James, D. (2017). Twelve reasons to oppose rules on digital commerce in the WTO._Huffington post. Retrieved from

16. Koh, H., Shah, V., Fernandez, H., Hicks, R. & Cheam, J. (2017, December 4). How e=commerce is changing us and our planet. Retrieved from

17. Gurumurthy, A. & Chami, N. (2017, May). A feminist action framework on development and digital technologies. Issue Paper]. Retrieved from

18. Azim Premji University. (2017, October 5). Adair Turner – capitalism and robots. ‘Resurrecting the Public’ Lecture Series. [Video file]. Retrieved from

19. Federici, S. (n.d.). Feminism and the politics of the commons. Retrieved from

20. Martinson, J. (2018, January 21). Technology will widen pay gap and hit women hardest – Davos report. The Guardian. Retrieved from

21. Research by the World Economic Forum indicates that women face five jobs lost for every job gained, versus three jobs lost to one gained for men overall.

22. For example, in Silicon Valley, hardly 11% of executive positions are held by women.

23. Middleton, C. (2018, June 1). Robots & AI creating more jobs in Asia than they destroy. Retrieved from

24. Acemoglu, D. and Autor, D. (2010). Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved from

25. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

26. Graham, M. (2018, January 29). The rise of the planetary labor market – and what it means for the future of work. New Statesman. Retrieved from

27. Janah, L. (n.d.). Microwork – dignified digital work for women, youth & refugees. Retrieved from

28. Graham, M. (2018, January 29). op.cit.

29. Azim Premji University. (2017, October 5). op.cit.

30. Saxer, M. (2017). The future of work in Asia – how can India create livelihoods in the digital age? Retrieved from

31. In low and lower-middle income countries, a higher proportion of women are in informal employment than men. In Africa, 89.7 percent of employed women are in informal employment. ILO, (2018). Women and men in the informal economy: a statistical picture (third edition) / International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO, 2018. Retrieved from—dgreports/—dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_626831.pdf

32. The Research Unit for Political Economy ( R. U. P. E.). (2017). Aspects of India’s economy. (2017, June). Retrieved from

33. Elder, S. D., & Dauvergne, P. (2015) Farming for Walmart: the politics of corporate control and responsibility in the global south, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 42:5, 1029-1046, DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2015.1043275,

34. Saxer, M. (2017). The future of work in Asia: How can India create livelihoods in the digital age? Retrieved from

35. UN Secretary General (2015) Ban Ki Moon, ‘We Are the First Generation that Can End Poverty, the Last that Can End Climate Change’, Secretary-General Stresses at University Ceremony, Press Release, Belgium, May 28,

36. James, D. (2017). op. Cit.

37. Barrientos, S.; G. Gereffi and A. Rossi (2010): “Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: Developing a framework for analysis.” July 2010. Capturing the Gains Working Paper 3. and Milberg, W. and D. Winkler (2011): “Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: Problems of theory and measurement”. International Labour Review, 150(3-4)

38. Barrientos et al. (2010), op. Cit.

39. Scasserra, S. (2018). E-commerce, future of labor and the gender gap. Working Paper.

40. Digital trade and industrialization: perspectives from the south (2018, March). Key Messages from the workshop held on Colombo, Sri Lanka. Retrieved from

41. WTO Ministerial Conference in Buenos Aires (2017). Joint declaration on trade and women’s economic empowerment. Retrieved from

42. Sassen, S. (2017). Predatory formations dressed in Wall Street suits and algorithmic math. Science, Technology & Society, 22:1 (2017): 1–15. Retrieved from

43. Lazarus, D. (2017, June 16). Pricey ‘fintech’ lenders put the squeeze on cash-strapped small businesses. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

44. Taylor, L., Floridi, L., & Sloot, B. (Eds.). (2017). Group privacy new challenges of data technologies. Philosophical Study Series, vol. 126, pp 1-237. Springer. Retrieved from

45. Arrow for Change (2017). Sexuality, SRHR and the Internet. Retrieved from

46. IT for Change was one of the members of this multi-stakeholder Working Group. The failure to produce a report reflects the fissures within the group about the respective roles of government and private sector in the policy making process.

47. Coldewey, D. (2018, June 8). Google’s new ‘AI principles’ forbid its use in weapons and human rights violations. Retrieved from

48. Saran, S., & Srikumar, M. (2018, April 16). AI has a gender problem. Here’s what to do about it. Retrieved from

49. Gurumurthy, A., & Chami, N. (2016, May 31). Data: the new four-letter word for feminism. Retrieved from

50. UN (2018) Legally Binding Instrument to Regulate, In International Human Rights Law, The Activities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, Zero Draft 16.7.2018,

51. Gurumurthy, A. (2017, May). A history of feminist engagement with development and digital technologies. [Issue Paper]. Retrieved from

52. See the Open Data charter principles articulated by Web Foundation (2018). Open Data Barometer: Global Report (Fourth Edition). Retrieved from

53. Post-humanism is an emerging body of philosophical and theoretical approaches to understand the redefinition of the human subject by twenty first century developments in the technological and biological realms.