1. Pan, L. & Woelderen, S. (2017). Platforms: bigger, faster, stronger. ING. Retrieved from https://www.ingwb.com/media/1985605/platform-foundations-report-20170706.pdf
2. Iansiti, M. & Lakhani, K. R. (2017). Managing our hub economy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/09/managing-our-hub-economy
3. Morozov, E. (2018, January 28). Will tech giants move on from the Internet, now we’ve all been harvested? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jan/28/morozov-artificial-intelligence-data-technology-online
4. For Amazon, the biggest source of profit is not online retail, but the digital intelligence solutions of its business subsidiary Amazon Web Services that will eventually enable the company to vertically integrate every aspect of consumption, across many sectors of the economy.
5. Chanchani, M. (2018). Alibaba, Tencent, Softbank corner Amazon and Uber to become the biggest allies of India’s digital entrepreneurs. The Economic Times. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/startups/features/alibaba-tencent-softbank-corner-amazon-and-uber-to-become-the-biggest-allies-of-indias-digitalentrepreneurs/articleshow/62371736.cms
6. Massoudi, A., Inagaki, K., and Lewis, L. (2018). Soft Bank: Inside the Wild West $ 100 bn Fund shaking up the tech world. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/71ad7cda-6ef4-11e8-92d3-6c13e5c92914
7. Singh, P.J. (2017). Developing countries in the emerging global digital order. Retrieved from http://www.itforchange.net/sites/default/files/Developing-Countries-in-the-Emerging-Global-Digital-Order.pdf
8. IT for Change. (2017). Draft input text for UN treaty on TNCs and human rights. Retrieved from https://www.itforchange.net/draft-treaty-on-transnational-corporations-and-human-rights
9. For example, consider China’s MediaBrain project – a collaboration between AliBaba and China’s state news agency to create an all-seeing digital eye that can potentially access data collected from countless surveillance cameras, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, dashboard-mounted car cameras, air pollution monitoring stations and personal wearable devices to find leads, gather news, edit, distribute and finally, feedback analysis.
10. Hildyard, N. (2018). Why now? Structural drivers behind PPPs and mega corridor projects. Presentation at the meeting ¨Challenging the ‘Billions to Trillions’ Model of Financing Development¨, organized by the Center of Concern, SID, Eurodad and the Heinrich Böll Foundation, July, 2018.
11. Sharma, P. (n.d.). Top 3 land tenure systems during the British rule in India. Retrieved from http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/economic-history/top-3-land-tenure-systems-during-the-british-rule-in-india/5977
12. Gurumurthy, A. (forthcoming). Digital globality, in digital economies at global margins. Edited by Mark Graham, MIT Press.
13. Roberts, W. (2017, June 19). Amazon’s move on whole foods is primal, more than “disruptive”. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@wayneroberts/why-amazon-should-not-be-allowed-to-take-over-the-whole-food-industry-2524e792671
14. ETC Group, (2018). The Monsanto–Bayer tie-up is just one of seven – Mega-mergers and big data domination threaten seeds, food security. (2016, September 15). Retrieved fromhttp://www.etcgroup.org/content/monsanto-bayer-tie-just-one-seven-mega-mergers-and-big-data-domination-threaten-seeds-food
15. James, D. (2017). Twelve reasons to oppose rules on digital commerce in the WTO._Huffington post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/twelve-reasons-to-oppose-rules-on-digital-commerce_us_5915db61e4b0bd90f8e6a48a
16. Koh, H., Shah, V., Fernandez, H., Hicks, R. & Cheam, J. (2017, December 4). How e=commerce is changing us and our planet. Retrieved from http://www.eco-business.com/news/how-e-commerce-is-changing-us-and-our-planet/
17. Gurumurthy, A. & Chami, N. (2017, May). A feminist action framework on development and digital technologies. Issue Paper]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/FeministActionFrameworkOnDevelopmentAndDigitalTechnologies.pdf
18. Azim Premji University. (2017, October 5). Adair Turner – capitalism and robots. ‘Resurrecting the Public’ Lecture Series. [Video file]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dgf8K244j1o
19. Federici, S. (n.d.). Feminism and the politics of the commons. Retrieved fromhttp://wealthofthecommons.org/essay/feminism-and-politics-commons
20. Martinson, J. (2018, January 21). Technology will widen pay gap and hit women hardest – Davos report. The Guardian. Retrieved fromhttps://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2018/jan/21/technology-widen-pay-gap-hit-womens-jobs-hardest-davos-report
21. Research by the World Economic Forum indicates that women face five jobs lost for every job gained, versus three jobs lost to one gained for men overall.
22. For example, in Silicon Valley, hardly 11% of executive positions are held by women.
23. Middleton, C. (2018, June 1). Robots & AI creating more jobs in Asia than they destroy. Retrieved from https://internetofbusiness.com/robots-ai-creating-more-jobs-in-asia-than-they-destroy-report/
24. Acemoglu, D. and Autor, D. (2010). Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16082.pdf
25. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
26. Graham, M. (2018, January 29). The rise of the planetary labor market – and what it means for the future of work. New Statesman. Retrieved fromhttp://tech.newstatesman.com/guest-opinion/planetary-labour-market
27. Janah, L. (n.d.). Microwork – dignified digital work for women, youth & refugees. Retrieved from https://www.changemakers.com/technologywomen/entries/microwork-dignified-digital-work-women-youth-refugees
28. Graham, M. (2018, January 29). op.cit.
29. Azim Premji University. (2017, October 5). op.cit.
30. Saxer, M. (2017). The future of work in Asia – how can India create livelihoods in the digital age? Retrieved from library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/indien/13226.pdf
31. In low and lower-middle income countries, a higher proportion of women are in informal employment than men. In Africa, 89.7 percent of employed women are in informal employment. ILO, (2018). Women and men in the informal economy: a statistical picture (third edition) / International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO, 2018. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—dgreports/—dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_626831.pdf
32. The Research Unit for Political Economy ( R. U. P. E.). (2017). Aspects of India’s economy. (2017, June). Retrieved from http://www.rupe-india.org/68/gulffour.html
33. Elder, S. D., & Dauvergne, P. (2015) Farming for Walmart: the politics of corporate control and responsibility in the global south, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 42:5, 1029-1046, DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2015.1043275, https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2015.1043275
34. Saxer, M. (2017). The future of work in Asia: How can India create livelihoods in the digital age? Retrieved from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/indien/13226.pdf
35. UN Secretary General (2015) Ban Ki Moon, ‘We Are the First Generation that Can End Poverty, the Last that Can End Climate Change’, Secretary-General Stresses at University Ceremony, Press Release, Belgium, May 28,https://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sgsm16800.doc.htm
36. James, D. (2017). op. Cit.
37. Barrientos, S.; G. Gereffi and A. Rossi (2010): “Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: Developing a framework for analysis.” July 2010. Capturing the Gains Working Paper 3. and Milberg, W. and D. Winkler (2011): “Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: Problems of theory and measurement”. International Labour Review, 150(3-4)
38. Barrientos et al. (2010), op. Cit.
39. Scasserra, S. (2018). E-commerce, future of labor and the gender gap. Working Paper.https://www.global-labour-university.org/fileadmin/GLU_conference_2018/abstracts/4.3/112._Sofia_Scasserra_GLU_Conference_2018_Brazil.pdf
40. Digital trade and industrialization: perspectives from the south (2018, March). Key Messages from the workshop held on Colombo, Sri Lanka. Retrieved fromhttp://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/gdsecidc20180308_Key%20Messages%20of%20the%20Meeting.pdf
41. WTO Ministerial Conference in Buenos Aires (2017). Joint declaration on trade and women’s economic empowerment. Retrieved fromhttps://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/mc11_e/genderdeclarationmc11_e.pdf
42. Sassen, S. (2017). Predatory formations dressed in Wall Street suits and algorithmic math. Science, Technology & Society, 22:1 (2017): 1–15. Retrieved fromhttp://saskiasassen.com/PDFs/publications/Predatory-formations.pdf
43. Lazarus, D. (2017, June 16). Pricey ‘fintech’ lenders put the squeeze on cash-strapped small businesses. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved fromhttp://www.latimes.com/business/lazarus/la-fi-lazarus-small-business-loans-20170616-story.html
44. Taylor, L., Floridi, L., & Sloot, B. (Eds.). (2017). Group privacy new challenges of data technologies. Philosophical Study Series, vol. 126, pp 1-237. Springer. Retrieved fromhttps://linnettaylor.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/groupprivacy.pdf
45. Arrow for Change (2017). Sexuality, SRHR and the Internet. Retrieved fromhttp://arrow.org.my/publication/arrow-change-sexuality-srhr-internet/
46. IT for Change was one of the members of this multi-stakeholder Working Group. The failure to produce a report reflects the fissures within the group about the respective roles of government and private sector in the policy making process.
47. Coldewey, D. (2018, June 8). Google’s new ‘AI principles’ forbid its use in weapons and human rights violations. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2018/06/07/googles-new-ai-principles-forbid-its-use-in-weapons-and-human-rights-violations/
48. Saran, S., & Srikumar, M. (2018, April 16). AI has a gender problem. Here’s what to do about it. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/04/ai-has-a-gender-problem-heres-what-to-do-about-it/
49. Gurumurthy, A., & Chami, N. (2016, May 31). Data: the new four-letter word for feminism. Retrieved from https://www.genderit.org/articles/data-new-four-letter-word-feminism
50. UN (2018) Legally Binding Instrument to Regulate, In International Human Rights Law, The Activities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, Zero Draft 16.7.2018,https://www.ohchr.org/documents/hrbodies/hrcouncil/wgtranscorp/session3/draftlbi.pdf
51. Gurumurthy, A. (2017, May). A history of feminist engagement with development and digital technologies. [Issue Paper]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/HistoryOfFeministEngagementWithDevelopmentAndDigitalTechnologies.pdf
52. See the Open Data charter principles articulated by Web Foundation (2018). Open Data Barometer: Global Report (Fourth Edition). Retrieved fromhttp://opendatabarometer.org/doc/4thEdition/ODB-4thEdition-GlobalReport.pdf
53. Post-humanism is an emerging body of philosophical and theoretical approaches to understand the redefinition of the human subject by twenty first century developments in the technological and biological realms.