The study of two large 'ICTs programmes in School Education' (IPSE) programmes of neighbouring Indian states reveals some interesting insights. The integrated model followed in Kerala's IT @ Schools programme, which focused on developing systemic in-house capabilities anchored around school teachers, has shown considerable success; in terms of higher teacher engagement, integration of computer learning with the regular learning processes, significant cost efficiencies, greater per-learner computer availability, and development of teacher networks and collaborative content creation processes, which support teacher professional development.
The alternative model, employed by Karnataka's Mahiti Sindhu programme, does not show such significant outcomes. Funds were spent on vendor payments instead of building in-house capacities. The system itself did not benefit from this expenditure, and is unable to meaningfully sustain the program beyond BOOT period. Such outsourcing also builds dependencies of public education system on private players that can significantly distort pedagogical structures in inimical ways.